our words make worlds

Italian Voyant Analysis Report

Student ambassadors: Anita Baratti | Maria Chiara Aquilino

Italian - Data mining

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19 January: In Context: Cina, allarme, ‘Virus viaggia all’estero’ (the virus travelling abroad). In Correlations: the word virus is linked to China and the concept of being new (although reference to SARS is made)

21 January: In Context: stating what was known about the new virus until then, the virus has been imported according to the newspaper's assumptions. ‘Virus letale’ seems to suggest the consequences will be absolutely dramatic. Speaking of a Western man being accidentally infected on a trip. ‘Virus’ linked to ‘abituare’. Seems weird to think about the fact that the virus might actually stay and become part of our normal life, but then would our lives ever get back to normal? Also, ‘paura’ is connected to ‘cinese’ as well as ‘nazionale’, almost unifying the Italian people through the shared feeling.

22 January: In Context: virus cinese, primo caso. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as ‘allerta’, ‘arrivo’, ‘aeroporto’. Just one day after the first case was found in Europe (Bordeaux, France, 21.01). References in Terms indicate great attention towards the geographical origin of the virus. In Context we see it defined as ‘virus cinese’. Interestingly, ‘cinese’ and ‘Cina’ have a higher degree of correlation to ‘ansia’ or ‘attenzione’ than ‘virus’ does - expecting possible racial implications in later analysis? Correlations, with words such as ‘arrivo’ and ‘aeroporto’, underlines that attention is paid to the movement of the virus - arriving, moving into Europe.

27 January: In Context: Pechino, Wuhan, capacità di diffusione del virus, cinese. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to ‘allarme’ meaning alert. Low number of articles as well as of relevant words in Cirrus might be linked to the fact that Italy had not been hit by the emergency yet?

02 February: In Context: news reporting on the decision making process around the will to declare the emergency in Italy. At the same time, the first few cases arise. At this point the possibility of an increase of cases over the following month was acknowledged. In Correlations: the word virus is linked to ‘war’ and ‘soldiers’.

03 February: In Context: Wuhan, boom di contagi, misure eccezionali. In Context it can be observed that words such as ‘nationality’, ‘citizens’ are often used and associated either with ‘Chinese’ or ‘scared’. In Correlations the word ‘fear’ primarily varies in sync with ‘influenza’, ‘mask’ and ‘mass’. This might make us think about how the media fostered the growth of public panic.

05 February: In Context: sindrome cinese, emergenza, cittadini asiatici/orientali. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as ‘autorità’, ‘contagio’. The analysis of Context brought up an interesting attention towards the social dimension - high number of articles reporting on Chinese kids being left out from birthday parties and schools, and Chinese restaurants finding it hard to work, as well as acts of solidarity demonstrated towards them. In Correlations, we find ‘connazionali’ or ‘nazione’ being closely associated with ‘cinesi’ and ‘paura’.

07 February: In Context: origine del coronavirus, diffusione del coronavirus, le paure delle differenze. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as ‘aerei’, ‘controlli’. Context again highlights the role of China as the ‘origin of the virus’ and presents the racial and social implications of such rhetoric: several articles recounting physical acts of racism perpetrated against Chinese nationals, especially kids. In Correlations, we find the attention being directed towards Brescia and Bergamo as hotbeds, underlining the need for ‘mascherine’ to ‘combattere’ the virus, and the atmosphere of ‘caos’ in the Lombardy region.

08 February: In Context: ‘diagnosi’ and reference to preparedness for the possibility of having cases of infection. ‘Spaventati’, ‘aeroporto’, ‘scali’, fear for the virus to be imported from abroad. References to Brescia and the area of Lombardy, first cases found and tests are conducted. In Correlations: ‘Cina’ is linked to ‘chiusura’, ‘bloccato’, ‘cancellare’. This marks the attempt to block the spread of the virus before this expands in Italy.

09 February: In Context: news depicting the difficulty to detect the virus, being it new, and underlines its diffusion. In Correlations: uncertainty on whether the virus can be spread through and caught by animals as well represented by the links with the word virus in the section (animali, mammiferi).

10 February: In Context: misure drastiche, psicosi da contagio, crescita, razzismo. In Correlations the word ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as ‘contagio’, ‘contaminati’. In Correlations the word ‘razzismo’ primarily varies in sync with ‘paura’ and ‘orientale’, thus the news still provides a negative perspective on the unfolding events.

11 February: In Context: measures are being elaborated, meanwhile public places such as universities are awaiting further instructions. Question on how long should the quarantine of who tested positive to the virus last. In Correlations: despite the crisis having just started, the link between ‘economia’ and ‘calo’ marks the repentine impact it had. Also, ‘causa’, ‘colpa’, ‘Cina’ are all words linked to ‘effetto’, helping build further the idea that China is to be held accountable for the pandemic and the difficulties that Italy is and will encounter.

13 February: Coronavirus: In Context: allarme epidemia, prevenzione. In Context: ai tempi del covid, rischio sanitario. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as ‘allarme’, ‘allarmismi’, ‘esperto’. In Correlations, the virus is associated both with ‘allarme’ and ‘allarmismi’, although being the two of opposite nature: clearly there started to be a division regarding the actual severity of the emergency. Covid-19: In Contexts articles mainly focus on the areas that were hit by the virus the most, highlighting the situation as a ‘sconvolgimento’ of people’s lives. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is linked to words such as ‘arrivato’, ‘coronavirus’, ‘contagio’. The scientific nature of the term seems to be pushing findings towards a more medical semantics.

18 February: Coronavirus: In Context: ‘piccoli segnali di ripresa’ at such an early stage might mean that there was still not a clear idea about the urgency and perilousness of the virus. Life had not been interrupted yet, thus newspapers started spreading the word on the possibility of getting the virus in public places such as restaurants. Speculating on China and how the re-start could make it even stronger than it was. In Correlations: virus is linked to ‘residente’ as if after having travelled all the way to Italy the virus has finally settled down. ‘Territorio’, ‘cittadini’, ‘uniti’ all linked to ‘virus’ too, perhaps referring to the feeling of belonging which has been strongly emphasised during the emergency. Covid-19: In Context: quarantine is still voluntary, still uncertain about how long it should last when someone has symptoms. Opinions on the difficulty to actually self-quarantine. In Correlations: ‘quarantena’ linked to paura.

20 February: Coronavirus: In Context: psicosi, proteggere le aziende, ambulatorio speciale. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as ‘commerciali’, ‘aziende’. Context and correlations show that the disease is becoming more concerning, as indicated by the relevance of the word ‘psicosi’. And especially in the economic field. The use of ‘epidemia’ is also becoming more frequent, and appears in sync with the modes of transmission of the virus - ‘bocca’ - and possible solutions - ‘quarantena’. The terms in fact develop evenly and with the same degree when compared in the line graph. Covid-19: Frequent words: ‘persone’, ‘distanza’, ‘tensione’. In Context: ambulatorio speciale, a rischio. In Correlations: no close correlation (>0.5) with ‘covid’, but probably due to very low number of articles, plus low presence of covid as a word (4) - coronavirus is still dominant (7). Articles focus around the area of Firenze, where a covid hospital was set up for Italian citizens repatriating from China and thus at risk. The overall analysis brings attention towards the social dimension again, as indicated by ‘persone’ and ‘bar’, which appear closely related to ‘abitudini’ and ‘apprensione’.

25 February: Coronavirus: In Context: Interesting to see that the news talks about the first deaths, yet the topic concerning the virus is handled with caution. It is evident through the use of words like ‘possibili’, ‘non fidatevi’ that there is deep uncertainty around the new infectious disease and scepticism around the information spreaded at the times. In Correlations: ‘Cina’ linked to ‘ accusare’, as well as ‘approdare’ as if the virus had crossed the ocean to get to the new continent. ‘Ospedale’ is linked to two key words as ‘aspettano’ and ‘direttive’. Criticism has emerged only afterwards on the conditions hospitals have acted, no precise knowledge on how to tackle the spread and how to treat the patients was provided thus many negative stories of people who have experienced the situation, both as medics and as patients, have emerged now. Covid-19: In Context: mentions that things are being suspended as trips, football games and training, celebrations, schools, and that measures ad hoc are being taken. Increase in numbers of contaged people and reference to China and the way the circumstances are evolving there. Emphasis on the warning not to go to the emergency department at the hospital as this might increase the possibility of contaging other people. In Correlations: Cina is linked to ‘accusato’ and ‘causare’ highlighting the fact that the blame, particularly at the beginning of the spread, was on it.

26 February: Coronavirus: In Context: zona critica, battaglia al coronavirus, causa/effetti dell’emergenza. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is linked to words such as. A climate of uncertainty is conveyed by the frequent use of the conditional ‘se’ (542) regarding the rapidly changing situation in Italy. It is also a clear outline of an emergency situation - dealing with options, considering effects, trying to understand causes. In this regard, it is interesting to note in the frequency graph that ‘se’ and ‘casa’ do not develop in sync. Context and Terms also refer to an increasing appeal to the authorities to define the features of the emergency. Covid-19: In Context: esplosione dell’attenzione mediatica, limitare i rischi, grande allarme, procedure d’emergenza, pronto soccorso. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘caccia’, ‘aprire/chiudere’ (and variants). There seems to be increasing attention of the media towards the work of ‘medici’, who are expressing their professional opinion regarding the disease. ‘Allarmismi’ vs ‘allarme’ still remains a frequent word, but it’s undermined by being defined as an ‘epidemia di notizie false’. Using the word ‘epidemia’ regarding fake news is interesting: it instigates a very specific reaction of scare and worry in people, given the reference to the current epidemic situation, and redirects them towards the opposite set of sources.

29 February: Coronavirus: In Context: the news gives more insights on the measures to be taken against the spread - although for now only who assumes to be infected needs to wear the mask - and announce the risk for everything to be blocked. Schools and universities are closing. Use of words like ‘stato di allerta’, ‘emergenza sanitaria’ to mark the beginning of the emergency in Italy. Episodes of racism taking place as the virus spreads. It is also possible to notice the fact that the word ‘tourism’ is linked to the idea that this will be jeopardised by the unfolding crisis (even associated with ‘crollo’). In Correlations presents ‘razzismo’ linked to ‘portatrice’ suggesting the idea that the Other brought the virus in the country, but also to ‘ansia’ and ‘influenzati’. Covid-19: In Context: prevalence of ‘contagiosità’, ‘trasmissione’, information on symptoms and the measures implemented to keep the spread under control. Also highlighting the fact that the virus can evolve. The tone seems to be quite negative and no positive aspect is provided. In Correlations: ‘emergenza’ linked to ‘ambulatoriale’, ‘ospedale’ linked to terms referring to what would then become the red zone (‘bergamasca’).

03 March: Coronavirus: In Context: events are being cancelled, highlighting new measures being approved and the fact that older people are more easily affected by the virus. Still calling it a Chinese virus, which is referred to as aggressive - negative connotation is emphasised, perhaps to underline the threat posed by the disease. In Correlations: interesting to see link between ‘nazione’ and ‘confusa’ as if it was meaning the absence of knowledge on how to react and what to do.The first term is also connected to the term ‘dopoguerra’ probably referring to the fact that the crisis that will be created by the spread can be compared to the post-war one that the state had to face. Covid-19: In Context: underlines the fact that there is the need to create more space in hospitals for the increasing number of people getting infected. Also, it must be noticed that some newspapers have referred to students graduating who have been asked to sit their last exams and present their dissertation via video call. This is to be noticed as the media have not reported much concerning schools, but that is probably because of the lack of attention given by the government itself. In Correlations: again the school topic underlined with the link between ‘studenti’ and the word ’incertezza’, stating that there is no certainty on how things are going to develop and how education is going to continue efficiently in the difficult times of the emergency. ‘Fermarsi’ is also linked to the first: many teachers and professors - generally quite old in Italy - have had major difficulties coping with the use of technologies due to the emergency, this has in certain cases even led to leaving students stuck with no classes until a viable way to give lessons was found.

04 March: Coronavirus: In Context: impatto devastante, colpa del coronavirus, effetto panico. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘angoscia’, ‘ascoltare’. Terms shows that governo is correlated to positive means of determination, such as ‘misure’, ‘decisioni’, ‘assicurare’: this seems to counteract the atmosphere of uncertainty dominating the social sphere and public opinion. The word ‘casa’ becomes increasingly correlated to lack of freedom of movement, isolation and quarantine, as the emergency becomes more severe. Interesting that many articles speak of cancelled flights, matches and other activities as being ‘colpa del coronavirus’, literally blaming the virus for the disruption to their lives. Frustration is clearly increasing among the population. Covid-19: In Context: fermi per settimane, quarantena obbligatoria, la laurea al tempo del covid. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘continuo/a/e’, ‘accademia’, ‘asilo’, ‘bimbi’. Probably due to the more technical connotation of the term, news related to it is more technical too - and less general. Several articles discussing the field of education - schools in fact were closed on 01/03. In Correlations, it is worth noticing the great amount of verbs at the future tense - ‘arriveranno’, ‘affronterà’, ‘faranno’: a forward-looking gaze suggests efforts towards dealing appropriately with the situation and finding solutions.

05 March: Coronavirus: In Context: psicosi da coronavirus, ecosistema digitale, norme anti-coronavirus. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘chiusura’, ‘fronte’, ‘protezione’. Great attention is clearly given to the closure and suspension of main ordinary activities - schools and workplaces. As a consequence, news started exploring what they call ‘ecosistema digitale’ as a solution to the closures. This seems to spark controversy: it is connected to ‘senza’, indicating a sense of lack and loss of contact, as well as mistrust, but also ‘potenzialità’, outlining the opportunity to finally explore the services and advantages that the digital world could bring to everyday life. The digital is also considered highly in terms of transmitting information - articles including instructions on how to access news and newspapers from tablets, smartphones etc. Overall, ‘digitale’ is mainly collocated with ‘avveniristico’. Covid-19: In Context: positivo/a/positività al covid, danneggiati dal covid, segnali/sintomi riconducibili. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘anziano’, ‘anti’, ‘codice’. Again, ‘covid’ instigates news more related to the medical realm and to advice and measures that can help the ‘contenimento’ of the virus. The frequency of the word ‘tutti’, correlated to ‘isolamento’, suggests the need for collective action.

06 March: Coronavirus: In Context: sanità in trincea, battere il coronavirus, ai tempi del coronavirus, buio arrivo del coronavirus, lotta contro il coronavirus. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘azione’, ‘cittadini’. War rhetoric related to the virus being widely introduced. The expression ‘ai tempi del coronavirus’ in relation to various spheres of society - sanità, istruzione, trasporti, vita - suggests that the conditions instigated by the emergency have become an established reality, and one which will be remembered in the future. This set of articles highlights action in correlation with words such as ‘agire’, ‘apprensione’, ‘intrapresa’ - the country would be put under lockdown three days later. Covid-19: In Context: lotta al covid, zona rossa, antivirus. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘amarezza’, ‘autoisolamento’, ‘coordinare’, ‘aumento’. The word ‘lotta’ is connected to strategies to contain the virus - ‘mascherine’, ‘zone rosse’, ‘decisioni operative’,‘autoisolamento’. The responsibility of “defeating” the virus is transferred from the medical staff’s to the population’s shoulders, too. Prevalence of conditional and future tense in the articles. For now, ‘quarantena’ is still only related to the sick.

07 March: Coronavirus: In Context it can be noticed that while the crisis is still unfolding the public is provided with news on the measures which the government is considering to restart the economy once the peak will be passed. Highlights on the fact that the virus is not a simple influenza. ‘Crisi pesantissima’, ‘nessuno è escluso’ are key concepts. In Correlations it is interesting to see how ‘positività’ (positivity) is not linked to positive words.

09 March: Coronavirus: In Context: controlli, malattie infettive, crisi (linked to health, economic, system, epidemic). In Correlations the word ‘crisi’ is linked to words such as ‘aumento’, ‘costretto’.

In Context one can notice questions like ‘come pagherò l’affitto?’ (how am I gonna pay rent?) clearly depicting the fact that the emergency has sprung and the already tough circumstances of the Italian economy have a greater impact on the population. Overall, the findings depict the negative effect of the pandemic on everyday life and the limitations imposed to it. Covid-19: In Context: ‘pronto soccorso’, ‘ospedale’, ‘test’, ‘ventilatori’, ‘terapia intensiva’. In Correlations the word ‘ospedali’ primarily varies in sync with ‘operatorie’, ‘lombardia’, ‘intensive’. Probably due to the fact that the term has a more scientific connotation, it appears to be linked to words referring to the emergency in hospitals, even to the fact that these are becoming overcrowded, rather than to a mere social and political aspect of the situation. To be underlined is also the increasing presence of the words ‘Lombardia’ and ‘zone rosse’ links to the epicentre of the pandemic, which was not noticed in previous mining.

11 March: Coronavirus: In Context: porte chiuse, giorni del coprifuoco, esperienza in prima linea. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘attrezzati’, ‘boom’, ‘aiuto’

Association of ‘coronavirus’ and ‘aiuto’ to words such as ‘abituarsi/ci’ and ‘adeguarsi/ci’ suggests people’s belief that lockdown measures will last for a significant amount of time. Major part of news referring to current cases, deaths, and putting emphasis on the action that everyone has to take to fight the emergency, invoking a sense of community - ‘tutti’ (685) is correlated to adjectives like ‘doveroso’, ‘collettivo’, ‘importanza’. Covid-19: In Context: contro l’epidemia covid, nuovo test, chiusura totale, misure straordinarie. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘apposita’, ‘coprifuoco’, ‘costante’, ‘costretto’.The entire country is now under lockdown. Articles in fact direct the attention towards the extraordinary measures adopted by the government to contain the virus. Interviews express concern regarding the situation - ‘è solo per un po’, giusto?’. The words ‘protezione’, ‘emergenza’ and ‘quarantena’ conflate in the line graph when economic issues are involved; lower conflation is noticeable for civic issues.

12 March: Coronavirus: In Context: bollettino di guerra, fronte coronavirus, salute al primo posto, storie di coraggio all’epoca del coronavirus, drammatici giorni di coronavirus, imprese colpite. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘autorità’, ‘lotta’. Dominant war rhetoric overall, focusing on the ‘battle’/’fight’ to ‘defeat’ the virus, and the courage of frontline staff. In the struggle, news clearly sees two major sides to treat: citizens - who are being asked to stay at home, and the government - who are regularly announcing new laws that define lockdown rules. Despite being a strategy of protection, the news’ ‘stay at home’ narration is not a positive or encouraging one, but rather one that spreads and asserts panic; the word ‘casa’, and the expression ‘restare/rimanere a casa’, which, in this case, should invoke safety, are instead correlated to words such as ‘panico’, ‘paura’, ‘attenzione’. Thus, Italians were talked into staying at home by narration and instigation of fear - an aspect which does suit military rhetoric. Follow up questions:

-> how did this influence people’s general reaction towards/view of the virus/emergency?

-> did this narration spark from the fact that Italy was the first EU country to face the virus?

The word ‘fino’ appears with high frequency in correlation with different temporal words. Such attention suggests the concern around the duration of the lockdown and epidemic. Covid-19: In Context: proteggere i medici, strutture ‘Covid’ e ‘No Covid’, grande instabilità. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘condiviso’, ‘connettersi’. Context presents the lockdown situation as a ‘presente congelato’, referring to the stillness and instability of the country at the moment. Great attention is paid to the organisation of medical sites and supplies, and how to protect everybody, frontline workers included.

13 March: Coronavirus: In Context: tensione sulle nuove regole, modulo coronavirus/autocertificazione, picco dell’emergenza. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘nazionale’, ‘internazionale’, ‘attenzione’. The word ‘nazione’, which grew smaller as the medical emergency started, reacquires importance as the virus starts spreading in the rest of the world and the media starts tackling the international situation, too. The work of the government seems to be presented as the medium between ‘tensione’ and ‘lavoro’ - articles reporting disappointment regarding government’s measures and conditions, as they create uncertainty for businesses. Covid-19: In Context: non si vola più, terapia intensiva, alleati contro il nemico, fare i conti contro il covid. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘azione’, ‘aiuti’, ‘collettività’. As per previous findings, as a headline ‘covid’ seems to invoke a more pragmatic and matter-of-fact narration of events than ‘coronavirus’, and more focused on the medical reality and difficulties that the emergency poses. The word ‘sicurezza’ seems to be key in the articles, referred to as a priority - ‘prima di tutto’, in correlation with ‘salute’, as well as protection - ‘distanza/condizioni di sicurezza’ for both citizens and medical staff. The word ‘pandemia’ is used for the first time in a substantial way - WHO declaration on 11/03.

15 March: Coronavirus: In Context: use of means of transport have been reduced by 80%. Also, articles mention how a simple influenza has been underestimated until the coronavirus pandemic emerged in the media, news attempts to trace back to previous cases. Highlights from the articles concern the attempts to hold religious celebrations online, the establishment of teams offering mental health support. As spring approaches the issues that the good weather could create in terms of people leaving the house concern the governments and regions. In Correlations the word ‘povertà’ is linked to ‘laureati’, probably pointing to the fact that employers will hardly hire new graduates in such times of crisis. Also connected to ‘pericoloso’ and ‘affollamento’, maybe suggesting the high number of people left with no job. ‘Virus’ is connected to ‘ospite’ as if after having travelled all the way to Italy, the virus is now seen as a guest. Covid-19: In Context: in the middle of the crisis people are demanding for financial aid to mitigate the difficulties generated by the circumstances. China’s being praised for its solidarity towards Italy. Emphasis on the fact that people being stuck at home are demanding more information and reports on the happenings (‘sete d’informazione’). In Correlations: ‘informazione’ is linked to the word ‘comunitaria’ thus further pushing on the feeling of community to make news fundamental to people and create some sort of dependence. Interesting to see that the word is also connected to ‘collaterali’, perhaps it might be thought it is suggesting the negative effects that news - particularly if fake - can have on individuals. ‘Futuro’ is linked to ‘criticità’ pointing to the difficulties of the time brought by the crisis and also to ‘combattendo’, once again comparing the crisis to a war.

16 Mach: Coronavirus: In Context: ‘terapia intensiva’, ‘vittime’, ‘task force’. In Correlations: it is interesting to see how the use of reference to China has decreased compared to the outbreak of the emergency. In Context the articles mention a difficult time, cancelled flights, the struggles of families, the fact that smart working will inevitably be part of our future. According to what I noticed in the analysis of correlations, it seems like the crisis has become more internalised. While at its very beginning newspapers were rarely talking about the coronavirus spread in China, now the fears and struggles told by the articles refer all to the current Italian circumstances. Covid-19: In Context: ‘aumento’, ‘ricoverati’, ‘indifesi’. The latter almost suggests the impossibility for people to defend themselves from the threat posed by the virus. In Correlations the word ‘ospedale’ is strangely linked to ‘messe’ (people turning to religion because of hard times?) In Context it becomes evident that the virus is spreading across the country and victims are registered outside Lombardy too.

17 March: Coronavirus: In Context: people being fired, the government creates the possibility to get in touch with psychologists to deal with the effects the crisis is causing on people, above all on medics and nurses who are invited to use this service. At the same time, some are still meeting in the streets, going against the rules. Working contacts are suspended as job vacancies are. Airlines are the ones on which the pandemic has impacted the most so far when it comes to the economy. Flights have been cancelled and capacity of airlines have been strongly reduced. In Correlations : ‘vita’ linked to ‘abnegazione’. Really interesting if we consider that the crisis has led most of us to sacrifice our freedom and needs as individuals for the ultimate preservation of the community. Covid-19: In Context: the news outlines the positive aspect of being quarantined at home, that is spending more time with the family. A deep feeling of community is to be noticed as deaths are announced and the sense of belonging to a small village and more in general to the Italian nation is amplified. It is also discussed that the virus has become the central topic of people’s conversations. In Correlations: Interesting to see that the word ‘libertà’ is linked to ‘Berlino’, ‘Christine’, ‘Lagarde’ as if freedom depended on the financial decisions taken by Europe.

19 March: Coronavirus: In Context: comunità virtuale, notizie false, supporto psicologico, effetto coronavirus. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘aiuti’, ‘benessere’, ‘accesso’. The stillness, closures and cancellations that the country is experiencing are often referred to as ‘effetto coronavirus’ - this indicates that the pandemic has been established as a reality and internalised. In relation to this, the word ‘vittime’ starts being linked not only to the virus’ death toll, but also to the economic category, which suggests more long-term consequences of the ‘effetto’. Small businesses are struggling at the moment, but also recognise that they will be struggling in the future, as they realise that the radical change that the virus has brought to everyday life will extend beyond the duration of the pandemic - ‘vittime economiche’. Part of these worries are also posed by the switch from the social to ‘comunità virtuale’. The word ‘tutti’ has become a dominant one, indicating how the emergency has engulfed all fields and aspects of society. Covid-19: In Context: studi sul covid, una realtà diversa. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘compassione’, ‘costruire’, ‘confronto’. News indicates that great efforts are being put not only into containing the virus and healing patients, but also in research - similar situation internationally. Interesting to see that ‘rischio’ and ‘sicurezza’ have the same frequency. The latter is also correlated to the hashtag ‘iorestoacasa’, which was initiated on social media to show support and solidarity towards the great efforts of the medical staff; it is also linked to ‘sforzo’. The former seems to be linked to welfare, as it is mainly correlated to words such as ‘psicologico’, ‘disponibile’, ‘compagni’.

20 March: Coronavirus: In Context: reagire allo choc, ricadute economiche, tempo della solidarietà. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘contribuire’, ‘abbattere’. The country is slowly reacting to the shock of the lockdown, and generally showing a more active instance towards the difficulties brought by the emergency. The analysed articles are filled with more positive words, especially regarding how to help each other individually and as a community on a local level. Coronavirus is still described as a ‘tsunami’, as a force that could not be stopped and certainly brought ‘disastri’, but it is being dealt with. ‘realtà’ is correlated mainly with ‘quotidianità’ and other words related to everyday/ordinary life, but also to words that indicate values and ideals, such as ‘lavoro’ or ‘idee’. Covid-19: In Context: lavoro straordinario, attrezzature utili, superata la fase acuta. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘cambio’, ‘concreto’, ‘collaborazione’. Main focus on how to deal with the economic loss. ‘Covid’ is associated with a great amount of future tenses.

21 March: Coronavirus: In Context: references to fines applied due to violations of measures. again great focus on the economic situation, mentioning ideas to support productivity, the law established by the government impeding employers to fire employees. Stress on the demand for governmental institutions to take a clear stand and concretely act. Evident emphasis on the need to set a date for restrictions to end, stressing the impossibility for the whole country to be stuck for so long. To be noted is the topic of tourism: worries about the uncertainty and the possibility of the sector being less prosperous, while new ideas and projects are proposed to cope with the circumstances. Discussions on earnings and workers’ health preservation. In Correlations ‘economia’ linked to ‘autonomia’, might be a correlation made due to the arguments with the EU over the funds to help member states hit by the emergency. Covid-19: In Context: ‘tempo di guerra’ and the extraordinary measures taken by the church to offer support during the emergency. Emphasis on help that can be provided becoming a volunteer for food distribution or even for protezione civile. The term is inevitably more linked to concerns about the health system, the number of positive cases and death tolls than the term Coronavirus. In Correlations: quite interesting is the fact that ‘casa’ (home) is linked to ‘benessere’ (welfare) but also to ‘bisognoso’ (someone in need). The concept of measures is linked to drama.

22 March: Coronavirus: In Context: highlights are financial aid to weak families, lack of masks for doctors, restaurants are increasingly working with delivery systems. I have noticed the last lines of an article discussing how the pandemic has brought out the ghosts that we have hidden in ourselves and how it has pushed us to come to terms with these: it was making the example of a young girl who had ‘self-isolated’ for long and this had prevented her from having a social life. She was indeed doing therapy and learning how to integrate among others, until the virus came to Italy and she was then forced into her house, while meeting her therapist via video call. In Correlations: I tried to look for more details on the topic of therapy and its role during the lockdown. The word ‘terapia’ has been correlated many times to ‘riabbracciarsi’. Hugging someone after months spent in lockdown can easily be seen as a therapy, which slowly introduces us back again into a very essential and simple practice that we have probably taken for granted before this. Indeed, the word has also been linked to ‘affettiva’, thus further confirming that showing love is much needed to individuals in order to recover from the shock provoked by the pandemic. Covid-19: In Context: the news are reporting the most weird excuses people have made up to break the rules, get into the car and move somewhere else. Once again, the media reports about ‘clima di guerra’ and the fact that this is leaving a void inside individuals. Should we then think that by stating the need for more news and by representing the crisis as a war, with the same impact on witnesses, the media have actually worsened the circumstances, particularly if considering how this could have affected mental health? In Correlations: ‘comunità’ is linked to words as ‘addolorata’, ‘all'unanimità’ and ‘allarme’. These together seem to be at the foundation of the construction of a strong feeling of belonging to the community, which puts the individual aside, in order to cope with the unfolding crisis and the emergency it caused.

26 March: Coronavirus: In Context: smartworking e precauzioni, l’esperienza dell’italia, raccogliere fondi. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘consapevoli’, ‘accettato’, ‘continuità’. Many articles focus on forms of escapism - mentions of music, writing, reading, and artists providing such instruments as best as they can in the situation. In relation to this, it is interesting to see that the word ‘virus’ is paired with the expression ‘tragedia umana’. As the attention shifts to the international situation too, articles talk about other EU countries learning from the Italian experience with the virus. Local and regional authorities gather funds for their communities and press EU and national institutions to provide money for those in need. Great emphasis on the effect of lockdown on families - the word ‘famiglia’ is correlated to ‘esperimento’, ‘emozioni’ and ‘dramma’, highlighting how the extraordinary circumstances are changing and challenging the domestic sphere. Covid-19: In Context: conseguenze del covid, prepariamoci al dopo covid. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘circolazione’, ‘aziendali’, ‘avvenire’. Stress on the government’s failure to provide support and structure to their citizens. Great concern around the ‘dopo covid’, as families are struggling and businesses are suffering from the economic crisis - discourse around ‘diritto/i’. ‘solidarietà’ correlated to ‘cultura’, ‘codice’.

28 March: Coronavirus: In Context: ‘cassa integrazione’, employees requesting money for the time they have not been able to work. Stress on the instability of many families’ futures jeopardised by the crisis. The peak was reached around this time and solidarity is strongly underlined as a factor unifying the nation in the battle against the virus. In Correlations: economia linked to dolore (pain). Should pay attention to the connection between ‘paura’ (fear) and ‘giustificato’ (justified). Covid-19: In Context: hypothesis of cancelling the possibility of going on vacation. The news reports the need to focus on the most vulnerables and protect them. Reports on the way other countries are managing the crisis too and emphasis on Euroscepticism → ‘Europe should prove it has a soul’.

29 March: Coronavirus: In Context: underlining the importance of speaking to someone about the controversial feelings and the fear of the pandemic. Care houses are still epicentres of the spread as elderly are weaker, thus an easy target for the virus. ‘Isolamento inclusivo’ as the system cannot leave anyone behind. Also, the government is planning measures to ensure safety and health standards for workers should they return to work soon. Meanwhile, the news is also bringing up the issues that the crisis created for the sport and show business. In Correlations: the word ‘paura’ is linked to ‘indispensabile' and ‘essenziale’’, as if fear is an essential and needed factor. Covid-19: In Context: the news report with emphasis the wish for the football national cup to begin again and the increased attention towards the sale of wild animals, which need to be protected and must not be eaten as they might cause the outbreak of infectious diseases for human beings.In Correlations: ‘lavoro’ is linked to ‘collasso’, clearly depicting the critical situation of employment and working due to the crisis. Interesting to see the word ‘ambiente’ linked to ‘accorgimenti’. The pandemic has indeed shed light on the need to focus more on the preservation of the environment, which is inevitably tight to humans’ health.

30 March: Coronavirus In Context: ‘lavoro’ often linked to words or concepts with negative connotations, proving the economic difficulties of the time. The term ‘positivi’ is linked to increasingly high numbers of infected people. There’s great emphasis on the need of more manual workers for the production of masks, frequent references to religion (‘tutti insieme riusciremo a superare’) and the emergence due to lack of medics. However, the news have started reporting with positivity the various attempts to generate a vaccine against the virus. In Correlations the word ‘crisi’ seems not only correlated to the Italian circumstances but also to words like ‘americana’, ‘Brasile’, ‘Barcellona’, perhaps suggesting the global character of the emergency. The term is also connected to terms such as ‘continuità’ and ‘ascesa’, probably referring to the fact that the peak of the contagion has not been reached yet, thus the lockdown and restrictions will not end soon. Covid-19: In Context: ‘guerra’, ‘infermieri’, ‘trincea’. The frequent use of these terms links the concept of war to the fight against the virus carried out by nurses and medics working no stop in hospitals. The concept of security is visibly connected to washing hands, social distance and the use of new measures at work and in public locations. In Correlations it is interesting to see the word ‘Europa’ associated with ‘difesa’, ‘combattendo’ and ‘divisa’, thus highlighting the feeling of euroscepticism particularly fostered by the economic difficulties and the expectation of greater support by the Union.

03 April: Coronavirus: In Context: principio di solidarietà, disastri ambientali, famiglie al tempo del coronavirus, mobilità individuale, incontro virtuale. The word ‘virtuale’ is linked to ‘alternativa’, as well as ‘delicato’ and ‘domanda’. The digital world is proving useful and beneficial in connecting people during the pandemic, but its potential must be reviewed for the post-pandemic. After a month of lockdown, there start to be complaints regarding people’s ‘mobilità individuale’: this is clearly reason of tension among people, as the term is related both to ‘limitata’ - suggesting people’s discomfort for being locked at home and ‘disciplinata’ - suggesting the respect of the measure as a duty. Covid-19: In Context: fondi europei, disposizioni restrittive, quarantena forzata. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘consiglio’, ‘contattare’. Articles pay great attention to the new symptoms that are being registered in other EU countries. Opinions regarding the lockdown seem to be divided between the ‘ferocia’ of the virus and the feeling of movement being limited, as well as quarantine being forced on people, rather than accepted. The word virus is connected to ‘opportunità’.

04 April: Coronavirus: In Context: deep clash between the emphasis given to the generosity of foreign aid to fight the virus and the huge number of people losing jobs. stressing that it is the responsibility of citizens to decide to stay home for everyone’s safety. In Correlations ‘panico’ is linked to ‘giustificato’, thus not suggesting anything positive about the development of the virus? Other links to the word ‘giustificato’ are ‘aggressivo’. Covid-19: In Context: interesting to see that there’s a focus on music and the new songs to encourage people to resist, emphasising the idea that we are all in this together. Also worries increase as the new season brings allergies linked to blossom, thus increasing people’s fear of being infected. In Correlations: virus is linked to ‘rassicura’, ‘solidale’, ‘ripartire’, ‘produttiva’. These words all have positive connotations, quite interesting. Must also notice the links to the ‘regione’ word. Indeed, the approach to the virus has been quite criticised as regions should have had more power to act autonomously. Interestingly enough the word is linked both to ‘assieme’ - probably referring to the government wish for regions to act unanimously - and ‘polemica’ - referring to the clash of perspectives on methods to tackle the pandemic and to decide to act.

06 April: Coronavirus: In Context: it emerges that rules and new measures established are still quite blurred and it becomes tough to implement them. Strong reference to the Pope and the Christian faith which can help overcome these difficult times. It is also underlined that the spread is slowing down except for the region of Lombardy, this is suggested by words as ‘insufficiente’, ‘raddoppiato’. Despite the great focus on national circumstances, the effects of the pandemic abroad are reported too (e.g. Johnson tested positive). In Correlations the word ‘lavoro’ is strangely connected to ‘caritas’. Indeed, the organisation has provided meals for those in need during the time of crisis, the number of people increased because of losses of job and financial difficulties.Covid-19: In Context: ‘distanza di sicurezza’, ‘disagio psicologico’, ‘inquietante realtà’. These terms depict a frightening new reality to which the Italians will have to get used to. When searching the term ‘scuola’, even for previous days, one can notice that it is hardly mentioned (usually around 5 times in context). Thus highlighting the fact that education has relegated to the bottom of the agenda not only by the government, but also by newspapers, as if it was something not worth talking about?

07 April: Coronavirus: In Context: talking about how to preserve safety, security measures imposed e.g. the use of masks in public places. Also reporting dramatic experiences of medics and nurses. Mentioning the work done by police patrolling, which has managed to dismantle the job of drug and arms dealers through the increased controls given the ongoing crisis. In Correlations: ‘recessione’ linked to ‘disastrosa’ to underline the tragic situation created by the emergency. ‘Ambiente’ is connected to the word ‘aggravante’, and this might be due to the fact that masks and gloves have contributed to worsen the pollution of the environment. Covid-19: In Context: focus on rest homes and the increasing number of infections in these. New hospitals for intensive care are being created to take care of new patients. In the meantime safety measures have been extended and people are not allowed to leave the city they are in during the lockdown, although there are some voices on the possibility of easing the imposed measures as the time passes. Mentioning willingness of people to volunteer to help to fight the war against the virus. Also talking about the 3D printers that helped building valves to be added to diver’s masks and to be used in hospitals for ventilation purposes. In Correlations: typing ‘vita’ I have noticed that it is linked to ‘progetti’, probably referring to how lives have been put on pause mode by the emergency. Also, I found ‘luglio’ linked to ‘vita’ and I thought this might be because of the fact that it felt quite far in time from April and the circumstances of the pandemic. July has been often marked as the month for the re-start. ‘Vita’ is also linked to ‘fortunatamente’ which reminds us how lucky we are, and have been, to have survived the wave which has badly hit our country and our lives.

11 April: Coronavirus: In Context: once again care homes are at the core of the news. These have indeed proved to be the perfect breeding ground for the spread of the virus. ‘Patente di immunità’ is highly discussed as a licence to travel around, particularly the South has been an advocate for that given the low rate of contagion reached in its regions compared to the North. Police are still patrolling streets and highways given the high number of people who should move from the North to go back home. In Correlations: sicurezza is connected to ‘globale’ suggesting that when the term is used it has an international connotation rather than being limited to the Italian borders. Interesting to see that ‘normalità’ is linked to ‘evento’ but also ‘complicanze’ either suggesting that going back to normality could create issues or that achieving normality is something that will present many challenges along the way. Covid-19: In Context: focus on people volunteering to help families and people struggling the most in times of crisis. The news also tells about the earnings of workers who have been stuck during the crisis, as the government has issued aid and funds to help its population. ‘Guerra al virus’ while a solution, a vaccine, a medicine is searched. While the government is tackling the threat posed by fake news, there are some clashes with the opposition which do not help the ongoing emergency, also adding the risk to politicise it. In Correlations: weird correlation between the word ‘casa’ and ‘carcere’. Whereas, ‘ospedali’ is linked to ‘capacità’, core issue of hospitals, also the link with ‘calo’, probably suggesting the lack of space inside them. Covid is linked to ‘conviverci’ and to ‘arrenderci’, negative connotation and a tone representing the surrender to the power of the virus on society and its life.

12 April: Coronavirus: In Context: reports on the fact that despite strict measures having been lifted leaving room for lighter ones, the police has not registered too high a number of people attempting to travel to their second house in the Italian territory. Controls on this day were increased since it was Easter, yet the news report that the high death toll feels deeply scary and prevents people from moving. Important to mention the focus on the generation victim of the brutal virus. A generation that has upheld strong values of responsibility and honesty towards our society, nation, territory. Being the elderly an easy victim of Coronavirus, the first hand memory of what Italy has been in the past, i.e. reference to war times, risks to be erased forever all at once. In Correlations: the word ‘anziani’ is linked to ‘agguato’, as if the virus took old people by surprise; it is also linked to ‘abbandonati’, many of them have indeed died alone because of the imposition of social distance and the lockdown, this also meaning that no funeral could have been held. Finally, the word is also linked to ‘amarezza’, the bitter taste left by the pain caused by the virus and inflicted to defenceless human beings. Covid-19: In Context: reports on the attempt of the government to include sustainability goals in the new policies adopted. Generally, the attention of the media has been quite focused on the North and its red zones, where the virus has impacted the most. Yet , it is stated that the symptoms caused by the virus on who catches it are less strong than it had been previously. In Correlations: ‘regione’ is linked to ‘dipende’ and ‘protesta’, as to link this back to the arguments between the state and the regions which might have had more autonomy in order to deal with the outbreak of Coronavirus.

14 April: Coronavirus: In Context: reporting how music has been fundamental for people to cope with the enforcement of quarantine. Also, emphasis on the wish to restart life, work and going back to normality. Thoughts on how the pandemic has impacted our lives and what change it has brought to our reality, alongside to how our future will be shaped because of this.In Correlations: interesting to see that the word ‘libertà’ is linked to ‘eurobond’, and even ‘condizionare’ connecting this to the fact that freedom is highly influenced by the pandemic that has had concrete impact on it. The word ‘futuro’ is linked to ‘difendere’ as if it wished to suggest the need to protect ourselves, yet at the same time it is also linked to ‘crescita’ therefore underlining hope for what is to come. Covid-19: In Context: mentioning the possibility of re-opening. Also, discussing the chance to get a vaccine by September, something that could help bring back normality. Right after Easter, there has been a boom in fines and attempts to break the rules established for the quarantine. Arguments on how the government has dealt with the emergency, critiques are particularly raised around the region of Lombardia and the question is - should the region have managed the crisis on its own? In Correlations: Interesting the fact that ‘riapertura’ is linked to ‘resurrezione’, giving to the former some sort of religious connotation. ‘Riapertura’ is also presented as something people are fighting for.

15 April: Coronavirus: In Context: risorse da investire, dolore e smarrimento, voglia e bisogno, esami di maturità, strategie e ordinanze, città deserte. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘contrastare’, ‘assistenza’, ‘artigianale’. Main concern regarding the virus has shifted from deaths and positive cases to a possible renewed spread after the emergency has passed. The word ‘bisogno’ is not linked to the sick and hospitals anymore, but rather people’s social and affective needs. Interesting figures representing correlation between ‘dolore’, ‘smarrimento’, ‘fiducia’ and ‘bisogno’ - intricate graph when tackling isolation from family and social distancing, looser when tackling the economic aspect. After two months of lockdown, articles put more emphasis on what people want to do (voglia), rather than have to do. Concern around procedures for final high school exams (maturità), which are an incredibly important part of Italian culture. Government has set up a fund to help small businesses and artisans. Covid-19: In Context: plasmaterapia, disservizi, creatività e voglia di condivisione, progetti culturali. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘accudire’, ‘collaboratori’, ‘agricoltura’, ‘affetti’. Main focus on economic and political sphere - country’s financial situation, with details on several different fields, especially the wine industry, which has experienced a collapse, and the government + local mayors decisions and initiatives regarding services post-covid. Reflections on how to manage relations with EU and other foreign countries; harsh contrast of ‘nostro’ vs ‘loro’, probably dictated by other countries seeking market and import/export opportunities elsewhere in Europe after Italy td its borders. It is interesting to see how correlations to the disease have shifted from concepts of ‘abbattere’ and ‘agire’ to ‘accudire’, suggesting a more personal, caring and nurturing attitude towards the situation, also emphasised by ‘covid’’s link to ‘affetti’ - rare social references for the term, as per previous findings. The word ‘progetto’ - mainly related to cultural revival - is correlated to ‘coinvolgimento’, ‘eccezionale’ and ‘emotivo’.

16 April: Coronavirus: In Context: strage nelle case di riposo, strade per ripartire, modo di vivere e socialità, archivio della memoria del coronavirus. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘aperture’, ‘ansia’, ‘ammortamento’. Focus on how the virus and lockdown measures have impacted on people on a psychological level - ‘aggravamento del quadro depressivo’, ‘fattori di vulnerabilità’, ‘angoscia immensa’. The articles are in fact full of references to people’s emotional psychological experiences after two whole months of lockdown: the figures of ‘dolore’, ‘emozioni’, ‘fragilità’ and ‘angoscia’ have similar growth. Lockdown and social distancing are jeopardising people’s mental health. In this, the word ‘comunità’ seems to have a key role - no evident visualisation, but strong links to ‘forte’, ‘bene’ and correlations to ‘commemorare’, ‘arginare’, ‘aiutare’ and ‘benessere’, suggesting people’s positive need for their community and social environment. Covid-19: In Context: boom di guariti, disturbi post traumatici, rientrati a casa dall’estero. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘analizzare’, ‘applicare’, ‘cervelli’, ‘conguaglio’. Higher attention on ‘regione’ and ‘regionale’ rather than ‘nazione’ and ‘nazionale’ - victims, positive cases and the healed are in fact being counted by region rather than nationally. As other European countries are starting facing their emergency peaks and opting for lockdown, most students and workers emigrated abroad are returning to Italy: in fact, it is interesting that ‘covid’ is correlated to ‘cervelli’ - ‘rientro di cervelli’, as if it was a phenomenon created by the virus. And one which Italy was longing for, given the extremely high rates of brain drain in the past ten years. Articles in fact argue for the development of plans and funds to make these student/worker migrants stay, and reverse the brain drain process, so that they can participate in rebuilding the country after the emergency.

17 April: Coronavirus: In Context: case di riposo, contenimento dei costi, cassa integrazione, sanità e tagli, cambia la cultura dopo il coronavirus. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘connazionali’, ‘complicare’

Concern around 1) the explosion of victims in care homes 2) the economic and public health crisis the lockdown has thrown the country in. When analysing people’s experience of the lockdown/pandemic, the adjective ‘personale’ is correlated to ‘limitazioni’, while ‘collettiva’ is correlated to ‘cautela’; both are linked to ‘cambiamenti’. There is thus a clear difference between how the government’s measures are seen from the personal and from the social perspective. The two together are brought to imply a ‘change of culture’ post-emergency. ‘cultura’ is linked to ‘alternativa’. Several reports of Luis Sepulveda’s death from coronavirus. Covid-19: In Context: fra moralismo e scienza, garantire la sicurezza, ripartire dai lavori, alternativa alla quarantena, lezione del covid. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘accogliere’, ‘affermazione’, ‘allegoria’. Again, concern for jobs and workplaces for the post-covid. Interestingly, the quarantine is now being associated with negative concepts, such as ‘forzata’, ‘domiciliare’ and ‘confinamento’. If pursued further, ‘covid’’s correlation with ‘accogliere’ brings to the word ‘misericordia’ - religious connotation? - which encapsulates a wider discussion around help and solidarity throughout the country, especially towards elders. Also, see ‘biblioteca virtuale’.

18 April: Coronavirus: In Context: development of an app tracking the contagion. There is also an evident attempt from the government to create more jobs in education. The news highlight the unpreparedness of the WHO to the outbreak of the virus and state there should be a global system of response. Various regions are preparing to run blood tests which volunteers can take to understand if they have been contaged or not. Hypothesis on how and when shops and workplaces will reopen. In Correlations: ‘governo’ is linked to positive words such as ‘gentile’ and ‘comprensivo’, but the word is also linked to ‘fretta’ perhaps suggesting that the way it is acting and responding to the emergency is fast yet not too accurate. The word ‘economia’ is connected to ‘combatte’ and ‘difensore’, almost linking the concept to the need of protection for something that was already fragile and has been further fragmented by the crisis. Covid-19: In Context: the news discusses the issue of people in prison who might be more exposed to the virus due to the poor hygienic conditions. Meanwhile, some regions have distributed masks to citizens, making the use of these compulsory. Workers and entrepreneurs push hard for the re-opening while the government seems to be sceptical for the time being. While some shops are opening and people are allowed outside, there seems to be a deep emphasis on core values and ethics. In Correlations: ‘valore’ is linked to ‘liberare’, ‘opportunità’ and ‘corretto’, yet also to ‘imponendo’ and ‘obbliga’. Quite controversial. ‘Positivo’ is linked to ‘crescere’, ‘opportunità’ and ‘fiducia’, giving an optimistic perspective.

19 April: Coronavirus: In Context: the news are reporting on the issues of mothers who have to take care of children stuck at home with home schooling, thus leaving no time for them to work. The news says there can be a step back to 50 years ago, thus erasing the rights obtained by women. Also analysing the possibility of an immunity licence to be created in order for people to move from one region to another. In addition to this, the creation of an app ‘Immuni’ that allows to track individuals and report covid symptoms could overall benefit the community (più sono le persone che utilizzano), also emphasising on the fact that the more people use the app, the better it will work. In Correlations: ‘domenica’, referring to the day the articles are published, is linked to ‘assembramenti’, probably as during the weekend controls were supposed to be increased given the larger number of people that could have attempted to move. Covid-19: In Context: reports on the fear generated due to the crisis and using the example of drawings made by children (l’opera della piccola Sophia’), thus further stressing the disruptive impact of the crisis. Also, ‘stravolgimento globale della nostra vita’ to say that the virus has completely disrupted our reality, but this might be the chance to learn from what has gone or even what we have done wrong in order to do better in the future. In Correlations what caught my attention was the link between ‘futuro’ and ‘cos’è’. During lockdown, and even now that measures have been lifted, do we know what to expect from our future? Although it might have been always imagined as the ensemble of infinite possibilities, now it just seems to be a question mark as possibilities seem to be erased by various obstacles generated by the pandemic.

22 April: Coronavirus: In Context: obbligo di mascherina, la solidarietà è di casa, giornata tipo, disagio economico sociale. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘artisti’, ‘avvenire’, ‘conversione’. Focus on care homes and prisons risking being more exposed to the virus. Masks have become compulsory in several regions. Highlighting solidarity within communities: the word ‘solidarietà’ is correlated to ‘prospettive’ and ‘continuare’, conveying a sense of looking at the future and working towards it together. The word ‘mascherine’ is correlated to the concept of ‘mobilità sostenibile’, expressing the need for cities to start “moving” again while maintaining a responsible attitude towards the crisis. Several references to artists doing their part in the crisis, especially by encouraging artistic expression that can document and testify on the present experience, enhancing a sense of unity and community - ‘artisti’ is linked to ‘uniti’. Covid-19: In Context: sete di liquidità, recupero di manodopera, vincere la paura, gestire lo stress/supporto psicologico. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘consistente’, ‘copertura’, ‘alloggi’

Going back to work is expressed as the duality of facing the reality of the economic crisis, which has fatally affected several businesses, and facing the anxiety that the virus still causes. The word ‘lavoro’ is closely correlated to expressions of activity, such as ‘affrontare’, ‘energia’, ‘intensità’. It is also linked to ‘femminile’, outlining recent worries that women might have greater difficulties in going back to work if kids are going to have to be homeschooled, or generally kept at home. The word ‘paura’ has dramatically decreased in frequency.

24 April: Coronavirus: In Context: effetti collaterali, boom di nascite, business digitale, spazio ideale, video-bufala. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘tempo’, ‘parte’, ‘rispetto’, ‘causa’. Great emphasis on space; the space occupied by people during the lockdown - domestic space - has come to take on new meanings and responsibilities. It is the space in which people are uniquely forced to live while the virus has invaded and conquered the social space: ‘spazio’ is correlated to both ‘esistenza’ and ‘resistenza’. The emergency has also brought people to revalue and rediscover the potential of the domestic space: the word ‘spazio’ is in fact also linked to ‘creatività’. Given the possibility that smart working will become a solid reality even after the emergency has passed, discussions start emerging regarding a concept of a ‘spazio ideale’ which could have accommodated people during the lockdown, and will be able to accommodate smart workers. In conclusion, the virus has completely changed our view of space. Covid-19: In Context: situazioni di incertezza, mappatura epidemica, fondo Covid-19. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘continentale’, ‘continuità’, ‘arrivato’. Links and correlations mainly present past tenses; as the country approaches the end of the lockdown - scheduled for 3rd May - it seems that the core of the emergency is being left behind. In this regard, it is interesting to see that the word ‘testimonianza’ is already quite common when titling interviews with coronavirus survivors. Put in a temporal context, the word has an odd vibe to it, given the brevity of the crisis and the fact that it has not even ended; on the other hand, it feels strangely comfortable when thinking about the overwhelming intensity of the past two months. Are we all already coronavirus survivors at this point? Due to an established climate of uncertainty - also confirmed by the abnormal frequency of ‘se’ as a conditional particle - the country’s hardly forward-looking, but rather more focused on recounting, developing and elaborating on the present experience, both culturally and economically. Linked to ‘testimonianza’ is ‘pensieri’, which is collocated in articles tackling intellectual and artistic revival that creatively focuses on coronavirus.

26 April: Coronavirus: In Context: news reporting instructions on how to get financial aid for people who rented properties during the emergency. It can also be noticed that there are various ideas which are rising with the aim of testing the population to understand how the virus has spread/ if people can actually resist the potential contagion/ if people caught the virus. Once again, focus on the disruption of the reality, the virus has targeted our fragilities and we were disarmed when facing it (‘L’epidemia ha colpito le nostre fragilità’[..] ‘disarmate di fronte ad un nemico[..]’).In Correlations: looking at the links with the word ‘vita’ it can be noticed that there are words as ‘mondiale’, ‘dramma’, ‘esperienza’, thus unifying the whole global community and its shared experience of the pandemic. Covid-19: In Context: focus on how the re-opening and the fact that only shops and places which can actually respect the security measures are allowed to open. From a more political perspective, news states that the far right populism is to be seen as a danger, especially in these times of crisis. The attention is also shifted to America and its critical circumstances, highlighting the impossibility to see Trump as a leader in the midst of a crisis. In Correlations: ‘crisi’ is linked to ‘comunità’, ‘cliniche’,’amministrazione’, showing the different layers of the pandemic. Once again it is linked to ‘battaglia’ taking us back to the concept of war.

27 April: Coronavirus: In Context: despite it is more than once stated that the end of the lockdown will mark an even tougher time for Italians, it can be noticed that new sustainable initiatives are arising and the public is given information on how the new reality will be, meaning the end of quarantine might be approaching. In Correlations: two different terms associated with ‘Europa’ are ‘amicizia’ and ‘bufera’, conveying two different kinds of perceptions of relationship with the EU. ‘Picco’ is linked to words such as ‘boom’, ‘domani’, ‘oggi’, suggesting that the infection curve should be reaching its peak and the number of cases should become lower soon. Covid-19: In Context the news seem to focus on the possibility of shutting down for many firms and shops due to the critical financial situation of the country. It is also reported about phase 2 which would have started a week after. The term ‘fase’ appears linked to concepts expressing unpreparedness, necessity to ‘convivere con il virus’. In Correlations the word ‘riapertura’ is linked to ‘festa’, ‘positività’, ‘produrre’, thus expressing optimism for the new phase.

29 April: Coronavirus: In Context: tutti con le mascherine, ritmi della giornata, abbraccio virtuale, raccontare il presente, la parabola del coronavirus, nuove esigenze. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘ansie’, ‘beneficenza’, ‘comunità’. Studies have begun to document people’s usual day on lockdown - more sleep, but also more sleep disturbances, less exposure to the sun, more vivid dreams - and analysing the impact all this is having on our health. Focus on post-coronavirus education methods and artistic expression. The word ‘ansia’ has plummeted in frequency (5), but is still relevant in correlation - referring more to the future at this point, rather than the actual health emergency. Communities and organisations urge the government to come up with a plan that will acknowledge and cater for people’s necessities. Covid-19: In Context: forme di assistenza, cassa integrazione, tristezza da isolamento, superare la situazione. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘attiva’, ‘condivisione’, ‘costruttiva’, ‘competenti’. Extremely high conflation between the words ‘conforto’, ‘speranza’ and ‘difesa’, which seem to be linked to strategies of recovery from the emergency, especially in the working environment. The word ‘famiglie’ is correlated to ‘destinazione’, ‘buona’, ‘attendiamo’ and ‘bisogno’, expressing the importance of family at this moment of crisis - many are waiting for the end of the lockdown to see their families, and see this as a ‘destination’. It is also linked to ‘difficoltà’ - families’ need for financial and social assistance post-crisis.

30 April: Coronavirus: In Context: la lezione di questa epidemia, volto del coronavirus, crollano i ricoveri, monumento ai caduti. In Correlations: ‘coronavirus’ is associated with words such as ‘adattamento’, ‘contributo’, ‘civico’. It is interesting to see that ‘remoto’, related to various environments - work, education, art - is not only connected to ‘cambiamento/i’, but also to ‘certezza’ and ‘definizione’. In a climate of extreme uncertainty, what is certain is that there will be a change in our conception of central everyday social activities - also due to the government's instructions that social distancing will have to be kept up beyond the emergency. In the line graph, ‘remoto’ and 'certezza' present consistent visual conflation. In this regard, articles describe that returning to normality will still have ‘il volto del coronavirus’, which shows the significance of the virus’ impact on our ‘normality’ - general references to ‘the new normal’. Covid-19: In Context: un po’ di normalità nonostante il lockdown, progetto sanitario, trasformazione digitale, contesto economico globale. In Correlations: ‘covid’ is associated with words such as ‘anziani’, ‘certa’, ‘continuerà’. As the cases have dramatically decreased, articles focus on the necessities of the post-emergency - lockdown scheduled to finish three days later. The word ‘normalità’ is correlated to ‘affetti’ and ‘direttive’, conveying people’s need to see their loved ones as they were normally used to, but also the need to follow the rules, which have consistently become part of ‘normality’. Much pressure is being put on the government to outline a proper public health plan that will not disadvantage the economic field.


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