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PROBLEMA

Latin Lemma

problēma, -ătis from Gk πρόβλημα

Latin POS

N

Latin Meaning

question proposed for solution, a problem; enigma, riddle, puzzle L&S

Spanish

Spanish Lemma

problema

Spanish Variants

problemas

Spanish POS

N

Spanish Morphologically related words

problemática, problemáticamente, problematicidad, problemática, problematismo, problemático DLE

Ranking/frequency in Spanish

145 Davies 2017, 112 CDEWP

Spanish First attestation

» Asaz enxemplos a esto se podrían traer, verificando el problema, e tanto muestra su verdat la cotidiana experiençia, que non es menester mayor aprovaçión (CORDE: Enrique de Villena, Tratado de consolación, 1424)

Spanish Historical frequency (per million words)

13C: 0.00 14C: 0.00 15C: 1.26 16C: 4.50 17C: 2.70 18C: 10.17 19C: 56.72 20C: 523.17 CDE
13C: 0.00 14C: 0.00 15C: 0.59 16C: 8.37 17C: 2.09 18C: 28.48 19C: 28.23 20C: 523.17 21C: 433.83 Enclave
- - - - - - - - 21C: 503.97 CORPESXXI

Spanish Semantic history

The medieval Spanish Biblical translations do not make the equivalence observed for Eng Wycliffite Early Version, preferring instead such renderings as razon, adeuinança, apuesta, proposiçion, rrenuçio: the Arragel Bible has enduze al tu marido commo nos absuelua la proposiçon (BM: Arragel, 1422-30). The corresponding section from E4 contains the extremely interesting form metaforizaçion: enganna atu marido & notifique nos la metaforizaçion (BM: 4, 13th cent.?).

» "something hiding the truth, enigmatic expression" 15C

Usemos de los poemas / tomando dellos lo bueno, / mas fuigan de nuestro seno / las sus fabulosas temas; / sus fiçiones y problemas / desechemos como espinas, / por aver las cosas dinas / ronpamos todas sus nemas. (CORDE: Juan de Mena, Coplas de los pecados mortales, before 1456)

» "general question to be solved (always associated with a question that is posed to which an answer is required, though not always a logical one)" 16C

Y assí, acercándome más a la solución del problema, digo que el calor y humidad de toda esta tierra mana y procede de differentes principios. (CORDE: Juan de Cárdenas, Primera parte de los problemas y secretos maravillosos de las Indias, 1591)

» "(mathematical) problem" 17C

y generalmente por esta práctica se medirán todas las distancias inaccessibles, que es problema universal, y escusa el individuar muchos casos particulares (CORDE: José Zaragoza, Fábrica y uso de varios instrumentos matemáticos, 1675)

» “difficulty to be overcome" 18C

[...] en fin, nació un problema pernicioso a la quietud de los reinos [...] (CORDE: Vicente Bacallar y Sanna, Comentarios de la guerra de España e historia de su rey Felipe V, El Animoso, mid-18C)

Spanish Collocational history

20C: Coocurrence with a wide range of ADJs at R1, most frequent of which are económico(s), social(es), político(s); with POSSADJ at L1; with resolver, tener at L1 CDE.

Portuguese

Portuguese Lemma

problema

Portuguese Variants

problemas

Portuguese POS

N

Portuguese Morphologically related words

problemática, problematicidade, problemático, problematizar, problemista Houaiss

Ranking/frequency in Portuguese

149 Davies & Preto-Bay 2008

Portuguese First attestation

Lógo, tratádo será de filosofia naturál? Porque meu méstre tem uns problemas, e diz ele que sam questões de folosofia (CDP: João de Barros, Gramática la língua portuguesa, 1540)

Portuguese Historical frequency (per million words)

13C: 0.00 14C: 0.00 15C: 0.00 16C: 0.69 17C: 2.44 18C: 5.48 19C: 32.25 20C: 490.77 CDP

French

French Lemma

problème

French Variants

problèmes, probleme, problemes, problesme, problesmes

French POS

N

French Morphologically related words

problématique, problèmatiquement Larousse

Ranking/frequency in French

188 Lonsdale & Le Bras 2009

French First attestation

» Chi comence li livres des problemes de Aristote, c’est a dire des fortes questions, translates de latin en francois (TLF and http://www.arlima.net/eh/evrart_de_conty.html#pro: Évrart de Conti, post-1380)

French Historical frequency (per million words)

13C: 0 14C: 0 15C: 0 16C: 0 17C: 2 18C: 11 19C: 24 20C: 113 21C: 95 FRANTEXT

French Semantic history

» "general question to be solved (always associated with a question that is posed to which an answer is required, though not always a logical one)" 16C

—Me doibz je marier ou non?

—Par les ambles de mon mulet (respondit Rondibilis), je ne sçay que je doibve respondre à ce probleme. (FRANTEXT: François Rabelais, Gargantua, 1542)

» "(mathematical) problem"

Car la neufième question vous fournira d’idées pour examiner les plus sçavans analystes, qui se vantent de pouvoir resoudre toutes sortes de problesmes numeriques (FRANTEXT: Marin Mersenne le Père, Correspondance, 1634)

» "difficulty to be overcome"

le sens d’ une phrase dans une langue étrangère est à la fois un problème grammatical et intellectuel ; ce problème est tout-à-fait proportionné à l’ intelligence de l’enfant (FRANTEXT: Germaine de Staël, De l’Allemagne, 1810)

Italian

Italian Lemma

problema

Italian POS

N

Italian Morphologically related words

problematica, problematicismo, problematicità, problematico, problematicamente Zingarelli

Italian First attestation

» e chiunqua passava quinde, costringea a solvere questo problema... (OVI: Francesco di Bartolo da Buti, Commento al Purgatorio, 1385-95)

English

English Lemma

problem

English POS

N

English First attestation

» How hadde this cherl ymaginacioun / To shewe swich a probleme to the frere? (OED: Chaucer, The Summoner’s Tale, c. 1382)

» Fage to þi man & moeue hym þat he schewe to þee what betokneþ þe probleme (OED: Wycliffite Early Version, late 14C) (This is a translation of the Vulgate Judges 14:15: blandire viro tuo et suade ei ut indicet tibi quid significet problema.)

English Semantic history

» "(mathematical) problem" 17C

Ye variety of Problems that may be put about a right-angled triangle, divided into two right Triangles by a perpendicular falling from the right Angle in the Hypothenuse (OED: John Collins, 1673)

» "difficulty to be overcome" 18C

The grand political problem in all ages has been to invent the best combination or distribution of the supreme powers of legislation and execution (OED: J. Otis, 1764)

Cultural transmission

Problema and its congeners were almost certainly introduced into Western European intellectual discourse as a result of Bartolomeo da Messina’s 13th-century translation of the Problemata Aristotelis from Greek into Latin and the subsequent commentary (Expositio succinta Problematum Aristotelis, also in Latin) by Pietro d’Abano. The first attestation in French is Évrart de Conti’s translation of these two works.

French is regarded as the most apparent source for English use in Chaucer OED. However, in the contemporaneous first attestation in French, it is clear from the context that problemes is an equivalence of convenience which is far from integrated even into cultured written language, since it needs explanation as fortes questions, and it therefore seems probable that it was not yet current in French at the time.

It seems likely that in 20C a number of common collocations in Spanish and French (possessive + problema / problème, sin problema / pas de problème, problema / problème + adjective) are the result of calquing from English. TLF regards Fr il n’y a pas de problème (first attested 1963) as a calque from English.